Which bees are the best?

Bees can develop rapidly in spring, or slowly, or in between. Carnica bees (Carniolans) are usually known to develop rapidly in spring, while black bees (A. m. mellifera, AMM) usually develops slowly. If the bees are developing quickly, they eat more food as they make more brood. It is brood that requires a lot of food, both for feeding the young and for keeping brood temperature in the hive.
Carnica bees usually start brooding early and strong. Mostly they react quickly to availability of fresh pollen, especially later in summer when chilly weather keep them inside the hive and brooding thus is greatly reduced. The AMM bees are often adapted to a late honey flow and weak early flows. The late heather flow in the Nordic countries has been involved in forming this bee. The yellow Italian bees come from a warmer climate where it may be smaller weaker honey flows during a long time of the season. They often tend to breed most of the time the whole year long. Therefore, there have been management methods of beekeepers in Sweden to handle this. For example, to hinder the bees brooding in winter by wintering them in one box only with ten frames of Swedish standard frames (366 x 222 mm). Then they let the bees fill the box with as much sugar solution that they can, thus leaving very little space left for brood. Such a small box full of Italian bees should not be well insulated. But if the colony is not very strong, a good insulation is necessary in our climate.
A cold spring like this in 2017 is a hard test for the bees and the beekeeper. It may not have been such a cold spring since temperatures began to be measured in Sweden, probably since the mid 18 hundreds.

Which bees are then the best?

For survival of the bees, they obviously should develop slowly in spring, and have no or very very little brood in winter. Thus they are more able to economize with the food so that it lasts until they can collect more fresh nectar from flowers in nature. They must also be resistant to diseases that can create difficulties when spring is cold and long, especially nosema.
But a beekeeper who wants a little better honeycrop than just 10-15 kg in average, and is trying to make a living from his bees must have a little different goal for his bees. This beekeeper needs a bee that can be wintered stronger than just on one box of smaller frames. It shouldn’t breed in winter. But it should develop strong in spring, if there is food enough.

I prefer the Langstroth length of the frame, to get strong colonies. The frame height can be anyone of the available options. The goal is as strong a colony as possible going into winter, with plenty of food. Preferably at least a box on top full of feed.
Large amounts of food are not needed for wintering, but for making brood coming spring. Where I live, with my bees, brooding begins in smaller amounts in late winter and increases at the beginning of March. Later in March the queen lays a lot, especially after the main cleansing flight that normally takes place later in March.
A year like this, the amount of brood will vary in line with the ability for the bees to fly out of the hive and get water for the brood. Bee types differ in ability of flying at lower temperatures. The beekeeper must ensure that there are always at least 2 frames with capped food so that the bees can make brood without risking running out of food. (Italian bees, unfortunately, often breed strongly with almost no food left, which is very risky for the bees, with starvation as the result.)

 A few days ago temperature was 8-10 °C. Many colonies was more or less packed in the first super above the queen excluder. They got two more supers if they were more packed, one more supers if they were less packed. Today 18 May it is summer. The picture shows colonies in an apiary before they were supered a few days ago.

In order to be able to get a crop from early honey flows, the bees must be strong enough to fill at least one super above the queen excluder (one box more than expected room for the broodnest of the queen) and a second for the development of the strength of the bees, when the first early flow begins, which usually is from winter rape.
A long cold spring like this means you have to check the bees frequently to ensure they have food enough. The best is to give the bees capped food combs. I get them from my stock of capped food combs which I established in November removing some outer food combs from heavy hives in which the bee strength was smaller. Those combs were replaced with insulation dummy combs. Food combs can also come from colonies that have died during winter. Combs that have been heavily defecated on and can not be cleaned are not used. A few spots of defecation a strong colony can handle. Another option when food combs are not available is sugar fondant. The last option is sugar solution. It will can cause the colonies to make too much brood.
Especially a spring like this you see a difference in the bee colonies. There are those who have bred too much and used up too much food. And there are those that responded too much to the cold periods and stopped brooding almost altogether. And then there are the perfect ones that did not need extra food but still developed continously and developed enough good strength, albeit not the very strongest. Then there are those which developed very well but needed some extra food combs. The two last types of bees are those that should be favored when selecting for breeders. First priority is though of course Varroa resistance.

Spring check of bee colonies

Vårkoll1 Picture 1. A good colony that has cleansed somewhat after winter.

Yesterday and today I checked 140 colonies of mine. I couldn’t reach one apiary with 6 colonies due to muddy roads. It was freezing in the morning but 50°F (10°C) in the middle of the day and sunshine. Four colonies had previously been taken care of, dead. These were small and had problems last fall, took the feed poorly and had had too little brood so it was no surprise.

Vårkoll2 A quite typical strong wintered colony on three square shallow single walled wooden boxes, the same colony as on picture 1.

Most colonies had been out on their cleansing flight after winter. But not all. Some sat still as in the middle of winter.

Another four colonies were now smaller than a month ago (was small last autumn as well) and they were not in harmony. Probably queen, nosema or virus problems. Probably they will die. Then there were four small colonies which sat quietly in a nice round cluster. They will probably survive. If this result holds it means 5% winter losses. I must be pleased with that.

In three colonies, mice had colonized the bottom box of the three boxes these colonies were wintered on. In one of these mice had totally cleaned out all the frames in the bottom box. The bees were sitting in the top two boxes. The mice had entered through a ventilation opening in the bottom. The nettings over it was apparently bad. In one colony mice had entered through a hole made by a woodpecker.

In another apiary a Woodpecker had made several small holes in a hive. This had a lot of feces right outside the entrance. The colony had obviously been disturbed by the woodpecker. The green woodpecker laughed in the background on my visit. But the colony was strong.

Vårkoll3 The fun strong colony on two boxes described in the text below.

One colony was especially fun to see. It was a small split of last year that failed with its new queen mating and started with laying workers. A pair of fists of bees left. Another small split in the same apiary had about the same story, after two queen pupae it had an egglaying queen, but only a handful of bees. Both of these were combined and dronebrood combs were removed. Now the small colony grew slowly and became strong enough to winter, but not very strong. Today after a perfect wintering, it is strong in the two boxes.

In another apiary was a small colony wintered quite week with 5 insulating dummy frames at the outer edges. The two boxes can hold a total of 24 shallow frames (137x448mm). The colony boiled with bees. It had obviously brooded in late winter and very early spring (it’s still early spring). It looked fine now and seemed to have come through winter well. There was some food left, but I lifted off the upper box and replaced the dummy frames with real frames with food, in both boxes.

All colonies look generally fine and the season looks promising so far now in March. We’ll see how it looks later on.

Daughter of the feral queen

Karin is a new beekeeper. She got a split from me with a daughter of the swarm that came from the wall of one of her houses, an unheated older, kind of summerhouse. http://www.elgon.es/diary/?p=515

At the end of last summer, the new colony had grown strongly to three square shallow boxes. Then came the heather flow (Calluna vulgaris) and the bees filled a super above the queen excluder (the forth square shallow) with almost 20 kg of this thixotropic strong honey. And it collected about the same amount in the winter room (the three boxes). This honey is said to be difficult for bees to use as winter food.

It appeared a few wingless bees after harvest and this colony was the only of Karin had so as precaution it got 2 pieces thymol of dishcloth with thymol (2 x 5g) with about 12 kg of sugar in solution.

Karin&Hive Karin and her promising hive 13 March. 

The colony has been sitting still during winter, and heavy of feed. Some bees made a cleansing flight first week of March. It is visible on the hive top. Today, March 13th, we checked the colony together. With a long stick we scraped out a handful of dead bees. Not a bee came out and asked what we were doing. They sat still again. Temperature 36°F (2 °C) outside.

As we watched the bee cluster through a plastic sheet cover the bees sat quite tight but it was on the middle of the cluster. The bees have brood. We felt the weight. Lifted on one end of the hive and then the other. The colony was still heavy, but noticeably lighter than the last time we checked the weight. It has apparently made some brood during late winter/early spring. And it smells heather honey from the entrance of the hive. The colony is strong and looks very promising.

Karin Hive Daughter of the feral queen has wintered successfully on difficult thixotropic heather honey, preparing for a good season.

Food control again, soon increase

A month ago I did the first food control after winter. Spring was then still cold then in the beginning of March. A number of dead colonies were brought home. I divided the combs in three groups, food combs, empty combs still usable and combs to recycle the wax from.

Some colonies needed food combs. Those I had taken in autumn from colonies with more than they needed and space that could be decreased by taking out a few outer combs in the top box and inserting insulation “dummy” combs.

Now a month later I did a second food check. Some colonies needed food. A few more were dead. Another few will probably die in a couple of weeks. The winter losses will arrive at about 10 %. Previous years the winter losses have been about 15 %. Those years about 30 % of the survivors barely survived and gave no crop. And they got their queens shifted later in the season. This year those 30 % will be 10 %, a better figure. Also the quality of the breeder queens have been better concerning the years they havn’t needed any treatment. And the VSH value is better, Varroa Sensitive Hygien.

Spring15-10 This looks like an ideal colony. Three boxes completely full of bees. It’s heavy, but not as heavy as last fall. There is some room left. I can estimate the weight when lifting the hive a little on both sides. Experience helps here. This colony did not get any super now, even though it had so many bees. They will manage well until it gets one in 1-2 weeks. The next round to the apiaries will be with the car filled with supers and also some food combs that probably will be needed.

Spring15-13 This is also a very good colony, a split from last year wintered on two boxes. Full of bees, plenty of food, but space left for nectar and larvae. They will get their third box in a week or two.

Spring15-16 A colony that was more insulated with insulation combs in both boxes. It responded by making brood in late February and March almost using up their food. It’s interesting a smaller colony with a fresh queen can respond in such a way to develop their strength in off season like this. An insulation comb was removed from the light weight side and a comb empty of food had their bees shaken off. The colony was given two combs full of food. On the other more weighty side of the colony, the bees had one full comb of food. That’s the minimum I want for a colony, three combs of food (about 5 kg ≈11 pounds). This colony is the result of a queenless split last year, which failed to make themself a queen. It was united with a split, that had a new laying queen, that was too small to be able to survive winter on their own. This situation probably triggered the more heavily brooding in spite of the smaller size, maybe a survival instinct as the colony had many old bees to start with that probably wouldn’t make it through winter. They had to be replaced in some way.

Spring16-5 This colony is weakened, the bees sitting close to a insulation comb to keep themselves warm. The bees are covering two full shallows in the top box. They had enough food. Already in November they had started to go down in strength. That’s why several combs were removed and replaced with insulation combs. I could have removed the bottom box, but that will probably be done at the next visit. This colony is questionable if it will survive. Does it has it Nosema and/or virus problems? Next visit will tell.

Spring16-8a This colony is almost full of bees on three boxes and it is very heavy, as heavy as last fall. It has barely used any food or has collected a lot of willow nectar. The truth is probably a bit of both. The colony has built much new wax on inner cover plastic sheet. It’s too cold (8C=46F) to open up and replace a number of combs with empty drawn ones. The quickest and easiest way is to add a super above an excluder (or without an excluder), which was done.

Some colonies now in early April got an increase super. In a way it wasn’t needed as the weather still was to cold to really trigger the swarming instinct. But if the boxes of the colony are filled with bees and they either are empty of food or heavy as lead indicating no space left, then they got a box. Five colonies out of about 150 got it. The next round to the apiaries will be focused on increase and the car will be filled with supers with empty drawn 4.9 mm cell size combs. This will happen in 1-2 weeks after this visit.

I’m fascinated how small my bees actually are now!

Treatment free feral bees

Up till now anyway, this colony of bees (and their ancestors forming this colony’s ancestor colonies) that has lived in a wall since several colony generations, has never been treated with any kind of chemicals ever, against Varroa mites or anything else.

June 29 last year I caught a swarm that came from this wall in a non-heated old house. (http://www.elgon.es/diary/?p=515) Towards the outside of the wall from the bees they had no insulation whatsoever. Just a thin board of wood. At the inside though a thick log wall.

For a couple of years there’s been an Elgon apiary 3 km away (2 miles). But the bee colony has been longer than that in the wall. Further back in time the closest apiary was 6 km (4 miles) away. At that time the Varroa mite had not arrived to these bees. For many years this colony has swarmed every year.

The swarm I caught was not big, but it had an egglaying queen and built up strength well enough to winter safely. To help it make a lot of brood I provided it with a shallow super above an excluder. I shouldn’t have done that I think as it was too easy for me to just take away this honey super when it was time to prepare the colony for winter. That is stressful time.

Now the bees hadn’t much honey left so I gave them 20 kg (44 pounds) of sugar in sucrose solution. If I hadn’t taken the small amount of honey it would have had about 10 kg (22 pounds) of honey for winter storage. Seeing how the colony behaved I think it would have made it well through winter with that amount. My first colony ever in 1974 had about that amount its first winter.

I saw no wingless bees during the season last year, so they got no Thymol against mites. I didn’t then have any quick way to measure the mite population (but here is at least one: http://www.elgon.es/diary/?p=354) And as I mentioned it was stressful times for me.

The queen stopped laying entirely in late summer. In November I saw through the plastic sheet used as kind of inner cover that the bees was sitting tight together like vacuum-packed peanuts.


About 10 March this year when the bees had their main cleansing flight after winter the cluster had spread out and filled more room than in November. It was very few dead bees on the bottom board. And not one defecate spot at the entrance.

These bees seems at least to be more winter hardy and be more Varroa resistant than common beekeepers’ bees, which have not been selected for Varroa resistance.


A possible scenario

A swarm of Elgon bees flying from the Elgon beekeeper 6 km away finds the cavity in the wall. Varroa mites havn’t arrived yet to the area. No beekeeper robs the honey or exchanges it for sugar. The cavity is not bigger than maximum two big boxes a beekeeper uses. The amount of brood can’t be as big as in a beekeepers hive. And the restricted area makes the volume finally too small for the bees (no beekeeper puts on boxes) and they swarm, every year mostly. Insulation is almost none. No beekeeper renews the wax and the bees build what they want when it comes to for example cell sizes. The Elgon beekeeper used small cell size to begin with. Here the cell sizes may become still smaller due to cocoon residues.

The bees adapt to the new environment now when they are on their own, like they were before there were any beekeepers around. In this adaption process the epigenetic process is most important, at least at first. The different environment created by a different “hive”, different food (more natural) and different cell sizes (also still smaller) gives a different chemical environment of many aspects. For example the different cell sizes give somewhat different food for the larvae, amount and probably composition also. This results in switching off some genes and turning on others in the DNA. Disturbing chemicals like pesticides and treatments in the hive can hinder this epigenetic process. But not for this swarm. It lived in a non-farming area and no beekeeper put chemicals in their hive.

There were no neighbor bees. Thus no bad influences from non-resistant bees drifting into their hive and no reinvasion of mites.

When the Varroa mites arrived the drones that became “fathers” were those that the mites didn’t parasitize. Maybe they avoided those drone larvae. And also those drones that were parasitized but were not as affected as others, became “fathers”. Thus also an adaption for resistance took place with a change of the DNA. Natural selection thus took place.

As the colony swarms every year there is a break in the brood production. This hinders the reproduction of mites. Also there is both an epigenetic and a genetic adaption with the new generation.

The smaller cells give less attractive food for the mites. They get less fertile on larvae in smaller cells. http://www.elgon.es/diary/?p=596

Drone cells get smaller in colonies on smaller worker brood cells. With smaller worker brood cells you get worker bees that get more hygienic. http://medycynawet.edu.pl/index.php/component/content/article/336-summary-201412/5234-summary-med-weter-70-12-774-776-2014 or http://alturl.com/a8scb Small cell beekeepers, including me, reports a widespread occurrence of uncapping and chewing out of capped brood in both worker and drone brood parasitized by mites. http://www.elgon.es/diary/?p=544 But VSH is said sometimes to not occur on drone brood. But those bees are kept on large cells. At least it doesn’t occur as much in drone brood. But it is observed quite a lot sometimes in small cell colonies as mites are observed to be much more common there in drone brood than in worker brood. http://resistantbees.com/blog/?page_id=2471


What happen with feral bees in a beekeeper’s hive?

If a swarm from feral bees end up in a beekeeper’s hive with large cell size, the environment changes and a “reverted” epigenetic process takes place. If there are more bee colonies in the apiary or close by all bees will be drifting (as is common) in all colonies and be mixed more or less. If these other bees have no or very little resistance against Varroa they will have a negative impact on the more resistant feral bees. These were enough resistant in the wall. Are they enough resistant now in this beekeeper’s hive? Maybe not.

If the feral swarm ends up in a beekeeper’s hive with small cell size, and there are neighboring bees that have substantial resistance against the mite, it may be that this swarm will do very well fighting the mites. Especially if there are no or very few bees around that can’t make life miserable for Varroa mites.

What will happen with my feral bees? Will they continue to be treatment free?

Meeting the sun

The second Sunday in March the temperature, wind and sun, together with filled intestines of the bees that had produced the heat for the winter cluster took these bees out to meet the sun. The main cleansing flight took place. What a relief!


Most often in Sweden you reach well into March before the main cleansing flight takes place. Now the colony has been brooding for some time, and this accelerates now. If the colonies started to make brood too early, for example due to a warm spell in January, or if you have Italians that have a hard times taking a break in brooding, this last winter was hard at them as winter never really came until February for two weeks. Those colonies have produced many Varroa and filled their intestines early because they have used a lot of food. The immune system is thus weak. Virus, Nosema and chemical residues contribute to the risk of defecating inside the hive, if there are bees left there. Many may already have left just flying out away from the hive (due to virus) leaving it sometimes empty of bees.

This winter should have been easy for the bees due to its mildness. But for many beekeepers that have trusted oxalic acid in late autumn and drone brood cutting in beginning of season (and just that) to fight the mite, this winter has been a bad experience. For a couple of years this concept may have worked okey. And the beekeepers, perhaps beginners, have thought they are safe.

But last year the longer brood season together with no or little checking of the mite population in July/August (mite population should not be too high then when the winter bees are produced), the mite population was too high when oxalic acid treatment came in October. The weakened bees then were still more weakened by the acid and overwintering became still harder. And it became even harder as the bees still had brood when the oxalic were used. Most mites were in that brood (that of course had well developed virus population by now) and escaped the oxalic. So it’s easy to explain the winter losses of such hives.

Now a beekeeper named Bengt Haglund just north of Stockholm have used thymol gel (Apiguard) with 25 grams of thymol in the gel in one small tray in spring. Upside down directly on the top bars, just above the brood. Next treatment was directly after late summer harvest. Another tray of Apiguard with the opening upward this time, between the two brood boxes. Winterlosses for five years in average 1 % for Bengt.

My goal is treatment free. I’m close. To get there I have chosen to use small cells, breed for resistance and use good quality natural food as much as possible. On my way to this goal I made the conclusion that I was about to loose almost all my colonies when the Varroa arrived. Therefore I treated, reluctantly, and lost “only” 50 %. The only season I have lost that much, in 2008-09.

So I used Thymol. But I don’t use anything until I see wingless bees. The virus causing it is the most common associated with Varroa mites. And I use as little as possible. I’ve found a piece of dishcloth with 4 grams of soaked in thymol is enough to start with, on top of the top bars close to the brood. Every ten days another piece as long as I see crippled wings. Strong hives might get two pieces at a time. Most hives get it in spring and later just after harvest. If there is some smelling left in the boxes when I harvest, it stays in the wax actually, and in the woodenware. The honey does not get any extra flavor (if it should it’s not unhealthy at all). Thymol residues are finally ventilated away.

Yes, Thymol kills microbes. But sometimes it’s better to have dead microbes and live bees, than dead bees and with them dead microbes. And Thymol is much less dangerous for me than oxalic acid – when making the oxalic solution, when handling it, when handling eventual fumigation and when handling equipment with crystals when cleaning up dead colonies.

But again, the goal is treatment free. And I’m almost there. Last year many colonies didn’t need any Thymol. Many got only 4 grams. Another lot 8 grams, and 12, and 16. A few more, and up to 40 grams at the most. Those that got 16 and more will have their queens shifted this year.

Winter losses for me up till now is about 5 %. Still some more % will not make it until May I’m sure.

Most colonies look very fine. And it seems I have several fine breeders to use. I’m happy the investment in breeding for resistance pays.

Bedding down


I live on 59 degrees north and 15 degrees east in Sweden. It can be quite cold in winter and bees can’t usually leave the hive a single time from about November until about middle of March, sometimes late in April.

I use single walled wooden boxes for the hives (no insulation) with no wrapping for winter, so the colonies need to be strong to winter well and be able to get a crop from the winter rape in May. No top ventilation. But bottom ventilation, through the entrance and through netting in the back corners of the bottom board.

I use square shallow boxes for 12-13 frames (depending on center to center distance) (frames 448×137 mm) throughout the hive, no other frame size. It works surprisingly well one may think. One square shallow box has the same volume as one medium, 10 frame (Illinois–3/4-Langstroth, 448×159 mm frames). Two square shallows correspond to a 12-frame modified dadant or jumbo box (448×286 mm frames). I normally use three square shallow boxes for winter (and as brood nest in summer with excluder) with the top third box full of or with a lot of honey, complementing with sucrose solution in August/September adding up to about 30 kg of food (65 pounds[lb]).

Smaller colonies get dummy insulation as outer frames, after combs filled with food are removed in late autumn. They may get the entrance somewhat reduced. These colonies are mostly wintered on two square shallows (with somewhat less honey and total food). The smaller colonies the more insulation they get to winter well.

After feeding sugar in September, temperature is low enough in October or November to keep the bees inside all day and clustered together tightly. Now the old bees have died off and left the winter bees for taking the colony through winter. The cluster is reduced as a result of this and also as a result of temperature compressing the bees together to keep them from loosing heat. Egglaying has normally stopped a couple of months earlier with my bees.

This situation didn’t occur this year due to relatively mild weather, as last year, until late November, with then steady temperature just above freezing. I then checked all colonies concerning strength and removed some outer frames replacing them with insulation dummy frames of compact polystyrene. Some smaller colonies had already been reduced this way in August in both upper and lower boxes. At this point only the upper box get outer frames removed. I have a plastic sheet covering the top and lift up and folded somewhat at one side at a time to help the colony keep warmth when working. The bees are usually calm and don’t move much if I work fast.


In August all three boxes are full of bees on all combs. When sitting in winter cluster in November in average this year they are sitting tight filling up about 7 frame gaps in about two boxes, in the middle box and somewhat in the lower and upper ones. Or lower down or higher up.  A colony with 8 filled gaps will not get any comb removed. 7 gaps 1-2 removed, 6 gaps 2-3 removed, 5 gaps 3-5 removed.

The smallest cluster now have 4 gaps with tightly clustered bees (with three insulation frames on each side of six combs in the upper box) and the strongest are filling 10 gaps. Watch out in early spring! Such colonies will hopefully need a super very early in spring!

Light colored bees don’t normally behave like this, they brood longer in autumn, wait longer clustering tightly, and start earlier brooding considerably in late winter.

My bees don’t use all this food for winter, they use maybe 5-8 kg (11-18 pounds). But with a good amount of honey they start heavily brooding in early March before even having made the cleansing flight after winter. Then they need the food! If they don’t have enough food you have to feed them. If feeding them sugar solution, which is common, the bees might react in easier develop swarming preparation.

The removed food combs are stored mouse tight and used for those colonies developing fast in spring and need more food. Some colonies have used too much food during winter and spring. They are not stronger than those that wait until March brooding, they might actually develop backwards due to nosema problems. Such colonies are requeened later. In second half of May I start making splits and nucs. These stored food combs are a gift.

With a good amount of food in late winter/early spring the bees “dare” to make a lot of brood. When May comes they already are filling (almost) a couple of supers above the excluder with bees and are ready to fill them with honey!


Prepared for winter

Prep smal

It’s been a very busy time for some time now. From about August 5 to August 25 all supers above queen excluder are harvested and honey extracted, the third removal for the season.

Prep tymol

Those colonies showing wingless bees on the hardboard in front of the  entrance have got one piece (about 4 grams) with thymol. On the next round those colonies in need of reducing the space for winter have gotten rid of the lowest shallow box, or/and outer combs taken out and insulation dummy frames instead.

Prep reduce

The smaller cluster the more insulation. Normal strong colonies no insulation. During the same round the weights of the colonies are estimated, and then follows estimation of how much feeding with sucrose solution is needed to take the colonies to the first good flow next year (not just through winter).

Prep feeder1

Topfeeders are put on and feeding done through a couple of weeks. Feeders are opened to let the bees clean them for me.

Prep feeder2

Then they are taken home for storage. Another round to check the strenght and eventual more thymol and more reducing of the space. In both cases just a few colonies.

Yesterday I was done. Relaxing for a few days. Now is the time to go through the notes and summarize the season.

Swarm trap in April of May

Weather has turned to April when May arrived. Freezing nights and barely flying weather in days. But solar wax melter works, in the middle of the day. Though development of the bees have begun strong this spring. They have grown in size and they have a lot of capped brood and they are heavy of food. With me, the bees have developed their resistance to the varroa mite and thus the impact of viruses have decreased, of course with the help of the mild winter.

If the weather turn a little better, queen breeding will start in 2-3 weeks, and splitting of hives making new, for increase and selling bees. Up till now 3-4% of the bees were lost during winter-spring, most of them to varroa and virus. 7-8% of the rest are struggling and given some thymol. A few of those will die, or the same as. Some of them will give a crop. Most of them will get a new queen.

I have put up a swarm trap, after learning how to from Tom Seeley.


Early flowers are coming early

Vitsippor Still wood anemones are beautiful and giving pollen, though bees are now more interested in other sources.

This is an early season, really. And beautiful. Chilly frosty nights but nice and sunny days. Solar wax melter works.

Maskros Dandelions are starting to bloom at sunny road sides. It’s very early. Watch out for its honey, it crystallizes quick, like canola honey.

Dandelions, maple, cowslip are weeks early, while wood anemone is still giving pollen. Dandelions and maple are valuable for nectar and pollen. Some years even giving surplus. Dandelion honey is like canola honey crystallizes quick and hard.

Lönn The chairman of our local bee club is fortunate with maple just in front of the two splits from last year that made it through winter just fine. Winter was mild in Sweden and winter losses very low this year, where varroa hasn’t been too many in the hives. The maple is maybe three weeks early. usually when it blooms in Sweden the weather is bad. We’ll see what happens this year.

Cowslip I’ve seen being visited just one day by the bees during their bloom. And the year after the bees were at the place for the first time, the amount of cowslip had increased substantially. Wood anemone is beautiful early in spring and gives only pollen, but as soon as the bees find other sources they go for them. The amount of birch pollen in the air in Sweden is now all time high.

Gullviva Cowslip make well use of the pollination services of honeybees, even if they just visit them during one day of their bloom.