An Elgon Beekeeper

Courses with speakers are a good activity for beekeeping associations. Some time ago I lectured in a small town in eastern Sweden. I meet many nice people and personal stories. For example, the best coffee I’ve been having for a long time – freshly made at the pizzeria in the small town of Valdemarsvik.

I shared experiences about resistance to varroa and breeding Elgon bees. One of the interesting beekeepers I met was David Fogelberg. I write about him because of his experiences with Elgons. (Click on the pictures to get them larger. Then click on the back arrow in the browser to get back to the article.)

A few years ago, David had no wind protection in front of the hives. Then he had 15-20% winter losses. After setting up wind protection, winter losses fell to below 10%. But in 2017, some colonies received old feed solutions. These colonies suffered and winter losses were therefore higher. There are more beekeepers than David who have reported higher winter losses and looks when they have given old sugar feed solutions in preparation for winter. Probably, the HMF content had increased during the storage time. Bees withstand high HMF content badly (But it’s not dangerous for humans, there is a lot in, for example, caramel).

 

David’s first Elgon queens

Four years ago, David bought three Elgon queens from me. Two were accepted by his bees. When he replaced queens in the rest of his colonies to daughters from these two queens he could handle his bees with short pants and without veil. It’s probably good though to wear at least a veil for safety.

– But then you used a smoker, I commented.

– Yes, David replied. I smoke the entrance and wait a minute. Smoke a little from above and wait a little with the top open. Then we work fine together, the bees and I.

 

David’s Elgon apiary today

Today there are daughters of these first two Elgon queen in seven of my colonies. They are mated in his apiary. One of the original queens is in the eighth colony, now four years old (and five years in 2019 if she survives, her colony is strong).

This year he bought three new Elgon. In total, he is wintering 11 colonies in his apiary this year. David uses the standard frame size in Sweden, 366 x 220 mm (14.41” x 8.74”). He uses the standard wax in Sweden with 5.1 mm cell size (five cells to the inch). It’s the cell size of the first foundation from A. I. Roots from America milling rollers in 1876. I wonder if it’s the standard cell size in any other country.

 

The neighbor beekeeper

It’s about 1 km (0.6 mile) to three apiaries to another beekeeper. There are about 15 Buckfast colonies in each of these beeyards. Within 20 km (12.5 miles) of his Elgon apiary, this beekeeper has a total of about 900 bee colonies.

 

Small amounts of mites

In 2017, David treated his colonies with fumed oxalic acid in early December when there were some degrees above freezing. From most colonies, it fell less than 15 mites because of the treatment. From those which it fell more than 15 mites he later treated once again. From the worst it fell 30-40 mites the first time.

I pointed out to him that there were very small number of mites. The colonies had certainly not needed any treatment at all.

 

Bee shaker test

I suggested that he should do a bee shaker (alcohol wash) test test this year (see, for example: http://www.elgon.es/diary/?p=67195 ) before deciding if the colonies needed any treatment. It was in mid October I talked to him about it. At that time of the year elgon bees have no brood, so I pointed out that a bee shaker test is not directly comparable to such a test during the brood season. During the season 2/3 of the mites are in the capped brood and not on the bees. This means that monitoring the varroa level with a bee shaker test (alcohol wash) when there’s no brood gives a three times higher value than during the summer season with normal amount of brood. Thus a the figures from a broodless period should be divided by three to get a value comparable with test results during the season with brood.

(Click on the table to get it bigger. then click on the back arrow in the browser to get back to the article.)  David made a table of his varroa monitoring this fall. One can see that some elgon daughters have a bit more mites than others. And some colonies have very few mites. For finding out the breeding value of these colonies it would have been good to wait with any eventual treatment until spring. But then we had not had these figures. You can at least see from them that there are interesting colonies to investigate more. Yes, really all the colonies are interesting. It can also be noted that the beekeeper with 900 colonies most probably managed the treatment of varroa mites effectively, otherwise one could have expected that the varroa levels could have been higher due to reinvasion. One might also conclude that it’s not a disaster if an elgon queen mates with some other drones than elgon ones. This is because a queen mates with as many as about 20 drones on average. And It’s probable that at least some elgon daughters have mated with more than just a few buckfast drones. Three colonies, no 4, 5 and 6 were not placed at David’s home during 2017 but in the local association’s apiary used for courses to teach beginners. In this apiary the colonies now have only daughter queens of David’s original elgon queens. David’s three colonies were brought back home in 2018. The three colonies were strong and splits were taken from them. The new queen in no. 5 is a daughter of no. 4 (a swarmcell from that hive).

 

Varroa level and treatment

David made bee shaker tests from about half of his colonies in the third week of October. The colony that had the highest number showed 7 mites. Those who had at least were two of the new queens from this year, 3 and 4 mites. 7 mites correspond to a varroa level during the brood season of less than 1%. The colonies were treated a year ago.

In mid-November now this year David treated all 11 colonies with fumed oxalic acid. The downfall of mites after treatment varied between 2 and 150. Concerning the colonies from which bee shaker samples were taken, those dropped between 7 and 92 mites.

(Click on the chart to get it bigger. then click on the back arrow in the browser to get back to the article.) One can see a connection between the monitored varroa level and dead mites dropped after the treatment. However, there is no linear relationship, which may have more than one explanation. But, the figures of varroa level from the measurements are enough good to provide a sufficiently reliable basis for making a decision if a treatment is desirable as soon as possible or if the hives can wait for a new decision after another monitoring with the bee shaker in spring. Concerning David’s bees, if it had been up to me to make a decision, I would have waited until spring, first making another varroa monitoring bee shaker test before once again deciding if to treat or not. If the varroa level then would be higher than 3 % or not (more than or fewer than 9 mites on 1 dl of bees (300 bees). But then we would not have obtained these comparative figures, which have given us more knowledge.

 

Number of mites going into winter

I remember a meeting with the Nordic Baltic Council (with representatives from the bee associations from the different countries) many years ago. Then it was said from Sweden that the goal of the treatment was that all colonies should be going into winter with less than a few hundred mites. In Finland the limit was set to 100 mites.

 

Conclusions

Two conclusions about David’s bees:

– No colony hadn’t really needed any treatment to survive the winter.

– The bee shaker samples gave sufficient information for such a decision. The next varroa level test were then to be done in early May.

 

Thank you David

But if David had not done both the varroa level test in October and the oxalic acid treatment in November, we would not have had these informative figures. The figures give a graph that point out that there is no linear relationship between the varroa level test and the mite dropping after the treatment. It may be due to different reasons. That would be interesting to find the answer to. It is though enough to say that the figures from the varroa level tests are sufficient to provide you with a sufficiently good information to be able to make the right decision to treat or not to treat.

And the most important thing in all breeding work for all beekeepers is always to identify the least good colonies and replace the queens in these. They can get queens or mature queen cells, from some of the other colonies is a good choice.

 

Cooperation in the Elgon area

Some years ago, varroa resistance had risen noticeably on my Elgon bees. Then I started to give away some breeder queens to the neighboring beekeepers. And they promised to graft from them to make new queens. In particular, Stig-Åke Gerdvall (board member of our association) and Peter Tesell (chairman). Radim Gavlovsky, who I began to cooperate with in queen breeding , took as many queen pupae and laying queens as he needed. This had of course also to fit into queen production for my own part and for the customers. The neighboring beekeepers in the local association already had Elgon bees, but now they were able to take part of the breeding successes faster and thus help to spread better drones in a more massive way in the area.  (Click on the pictures to make them bigger, then click on the back arrow in the browser to get back to the text again.)

Share it – it will contribute back

I had tried a similar strategy earlier and it worked. Then, queens were tried in varroa infested areas, before the Varroa arrived in my area. And I could bring back valuable breeding material in the form of pieces of combs with young larvae to graft from.

Less reinvasion – reduced varroa pressure

Obviously, good bee colonies in the Elgon are many enough and have now helped each other to keep down the Varroa pressure in the surroundings. Individual colonies with maybe too many mites have not been able to start strong domino effects by contributing too much of reinvasion of mites. Reinvasion brought about by more resistant colonies who silently rob those being richer in Varroa mites.

 (Photo: R Oliver)

Bee shaker test (alcohol test)

A couple of years ago, we also began to be more careful making bee shaker test and treat as soon as varroa levels were higher than 9 mites from 1 dl of bees, at least (about) 300 bees. Checked at least spring and summer.

The Elgon area

This has resulted in a very nice result. An area (about 15 x 10 km) in the center of the entire elgon area (about 50 x 10 km) which contains about 350 elgon colonies (in the center area) of good quality, and no other types of bees. Here, most of our queens are mated. Only about 50 of these colonies needed to be treated against varroa this year. There are probably more than 900 elgon colonies in the entire elgon area. Most of them has Thomas Dahl with 300. Johan Ingjald is increasing his numbers. There are several engaged new beekeepers going up in numbers.

Courses and support

Stig-Åke Gerdvall and Johan Ingjald (TBH-expert) hold beginners courses and queen breeding courses in our local association. They help the participants to get new good colonies, and to help them find good places to mate their new virgin queens. We have also organized a mating site for mini nucs which Peter Tesell manage.

Good figures

The annual losses are about 10% in the area. The harvests are good, and of course, vary with the availability of nectar in the various parts of the area. To the east, it is a problem to produce low crops due to the rich soils.

 

Regular meetings

We usually meet in Nov-Dec every year and talk about the season and planning the next. This year we are so many so we gather in a bigger locality in Hallsberg. Anyone interested is welcome. Four lecturers. Lessons from feral bees – R Gavlovsky, Knowledge from TBH and Warré – J Ingjald, Possibilities of the Beescanning app – B Lagerman, Tips for breeding resistant stock – E Österlund.  Cooperation works well!

 

Two weeks at the ELGON Center

Sibylle and Wolfgang Kempf, Germany:

Erik Österlund made us welcome at his home and in his bee yards when we visited with him in July 2018.

I had asked him for an insight into his resistant breeding project to get some education and learning.

As we found out he and his wife Gunvi do not only love to share food! Between coffee breaks we had two weeks of constant work with bee colonies, breeding queens, harvesting, cleaning frames, sorting out combs and whatever work the season wanted us to do. Exactly what I wanted to see and had hoped for.

 Working the mini mating nucs with Erik and Radim. Wolfgang on the left.

 

Also a pleasure was that we met Radim, Eriks friend, who shares some work with him.

Decapping and extracting the honey combs.

 

Most amazing to me was the work flow and how fast and careful it was done with such a high number of hives and mini-mating-nucs compared to my small enterprise.

Sorting out badly drawn combs.

 

Bottling.

 

This work was shared by my dear husband who took most of the pictures. Erik made him a very good beekeeper too!

Grafting.

 

I learned how to graft in a perfect way and the result was not bad, I believe!My saying is: a good teacher produces a good pupil.

I even got a try on the bee blower.

Me using the bee blower after Erik had put on a bee escape earlier. That´s really tough work, lifting all the boxes! Respect! That is work my husband does much better than me.

 

One more action I wanted to see was the mite monitoring by alcohol wash to check the varroa level. I took part in this and got a wonderful lecture about how to evaluate a colonies state beside counting, so to know when to act on the infestation or wait a little and check again.

Erik giving me a lecture about mite monitoring. One of the most important actions with respect to resistant breeding in my eyes.

 

We did treatments too, since oxalic and formic acids are a no-go with me. I consider taking out brood or using thymol with the susceptibles if I ever have to do a treatment.

My thanks go to Erik and Gunvi! You made us more than happy. I feel much more sure and approved as a beekeeper and you made us feel like a part of your family.

We enjoyed the beautiful landscape and even took many swims in the lake where we had rented our little cabin.

 

The lake at which side we had our cabin. This is heartbreaking beautiful.

 

Varroa resistant bees

– African bees are resistant to Varroa mites, or become resistant in about 5 years after the mite has come to their hives, in Africa and Americas

– Italian bees on an isolated island close to the cost of Brazil have showed resistance in the same way as Africanized bees in Brazil. But the varroa level has decreased slower.

– The original host of the Varroa mite, Apis Cerana, is resistant to the mite and is very similar to Apis mellifera (African and European honeybees).

– My Elgon stock is selected for varroa resistance since more than 20 years.

• When reinvasion sources are few or none.

• When varroa levels are tested regularely.

• When bee colonies are treated when the varroa level is above 3%.

• When queens in such colonies are replaced –

• Then Elgon bees in my area seems to become resistant.

 

AHB1, Africanized Honey Bees

Africanized honey bee . Photo: Jeffrey W. Lotz, Florida/Wikipedia 

 

Remy Vandame describes in this doctorate thesis in 1996 that he found the varroa level on worker bees to be 5%. And more than 3000 mites in total.

That figure is about the same as in another study in which Vandame also was involved in Mexico some years later.

The AHB colonies were not alone in the test apiary. European queens (EHB) crossed with AHB drones in a number of colonies were in the same area. Those had better performance concerning varroa infestation and virus problems compared to EHB in USA or Europe, but not as good as the AHB. Drifting and silent robbery during nectar droughts are strongly suspected to have happened, thus evening out the results somewhat.

In December 1991 in Brazil, AHB bees were reported to have a varroa level of 4% (ABJ Oct 1997)

 

EHB on Fernando de Norhona, outside the coast of Brazil

European honey bee (probably not on small cell). Photo: Wikipedia/Luc Viatour/https://Lucnix.be 

 

Italian bees on a small island at the coast of Brazil (latitude south 22°) has the same small amount of DWV as in honey bee colonies before the arrival of the Varroa mite. This virus seems to be the most dangerous virus connected with the Varroa mite. (DOI: 10.1038/srep45953)

In 1984 africanized colonies without queens were brought to the island. They were made into 20 colonies in which queens reared from 5 selected Italian colonies from California were inseminated with drones from a colony from Georgia, USA.

The number of managed colonies was at the most about 50, today maybe 30. Besides numerous feral colonies that together with the managed colonies form the bee population on Fernando de Norhona.

  • In November 1991 11 colonies were examined for varroa varroa level. In three of these about every second bee had a mite (50%). Average was 26%. Lowest about 9%.
  • In April 1993 more colonies were examined. Highest varroa level 39%, average 19%, lowest about 9%.
  • In May 1996 of those examined the highest was 25%, average 14%, lowest about 9%. No damaged colonies, no virus effects. Good producers, very nice bees. (ABJ Oct 1997)
  • In November 2012 the varroa level was found to be about the same as in May 1996, about 14%. (DOI: 10.1007/s13592-016-0439-5)
  • In May 2016 the varroa level was 1-2%. Mites in brood also lower compared to November 2012. (DOI: 10.1038/srep45953) Has the time of the year significance concerning the Varroa level on the island, as it has in other areas of the world. It is lowest in “autumn” whenever that is. Here it seems to be in April-May, with lowest Varroa level then. Highest Varroa level in Nov-Dec. Maybe the lowest and highest months are somewhat different. No one seems to have measured to find out yet. Then it’s most logical to compare the figures from Nov 1991 with Nov 2012 and April 1993 with May 1996 and May 2016.

One thing is evident, the bee and mite populations are isolated from reinvasion from outside.

No chemicals to fight mites and big agricultural crops are used, that can contaminate the colonies or lower the immune and defense systems of the bees.

Cell size (about 4.9 mm) from the beginning anyway was that of the Africanized colonies brought there.

The Africanized microfauna came with them as well. The first brood was nursed by healthy non-contaminated small bees that helped the new queens to epigenetically adapt to the new environment.

 

AHB2, African Honey Bees

African bee in South Africa. Photo: JMK/Wikipedia

 

When mites arrived in South Africa you could find colonies with huge amounts of Varroa, up to 50,000. No reports of big losses due to the mite were given, if any. In about 5 years both the Cape bee (mellifera capensis) a little quicker than 5 years and the Savannah bee (mellifera scutellata) a little slower were found resistant to the Varroa mite (Mike Allsop doctorate thesis 2006).

Today (2014) the varroa levels are low, and no miticides are used to control the mite. In May, which is autumn the average varroa level was about 2%. In spring, September, it was about 1.5%.

Total varroapopulation in average was in May just below 1000 and in September just below 200 mites. No DWV (Deformed Wing Virus) was found. DOI 10.1007/s10493-014-9842-7

No miticide chemicals are used or were used (more than a ittle in the beginning of the arrival).

No bees full of viruses are spreading DWV.

Cellsize is 4.7-4.8 mm.

 

EHB in my Elgon apiaries

Click on the picture to get it larger. My testapiary for small cell Elgon bees Dec 1, 2017.

 

In autumn 2014 three colonies were brought from an environment with higher mite populations in some colonies within 2 km to an isolated test apiary, at least 3 km (2 miles) to other bees. None were treated in 2014 and no DWV-bees were observed.

One colony was weak in spring 2015 and got one thymol pad (5 gr thymol). Two splits were made in 2015. In late June three colonies showed crippled winged bees (DWV). They hade varroa levels of 2, 3 and 7% and were treated with thymol pads. One colony with 3% varroa level showed no DWV and wasn’t treated. In August 2015 the Varroa levels were 0, 0,3, 0,3 0,3 and 3%. One weak colony that got a laying queen introduced late in the season died during the winter.

Two spits were made in 2016, one were made in 2017. 2017 was the third unusually bad year in a row and the apiary is placed in a forested area with low nectar resources.

Varroa levels in average during 2016 was 0-1,5%, during 2017 0-1%.

No treatment were used 2016 and 2017.

Cellsize 4.9 mm – http://www.elgon.es/resistancebreeding.html – Strategy A. Isolated apiary, treat above 3 % varroa level.

 

Resistance breeding in an environment with high virus pressure

In most western countries we have a high varroa and virus pressure. Probably the result of heavy use of treating the colonies against mites for many years. In the light of what varroa levels finally stops at naturally, according to the above experiences, 1-4%, and the experiences I have had the latest years with treating colonies with varroa levels above 3% and replacing the least good queens – I find this strategy a good solution to get varroa resistant bees in even difficult environments.

It may probably take a little longer if the new queens will mate with more than a few drones from susceptible colonies. But that doesn’t matter to much as a queen mates with in average 20 drones. The bad genetics will be weeded out quite quickly if you are keen in replacing the least good queens every year. 

Reed more on this link: http://www.elgon.es/resistancebreeding.html

Resistant bees in Wales

In north Wales, there is a group of beekeepers that do not treat honey bee colonies against the Varroa mite. They havn’t done it in years. Winter losses are lower among their bees than with those who treat. Here is a video made about them: https://vimeo.com/157019200

Dave was probably the one who was the first to stop treating. Then Pete stopped. He is a bee inspector. He had a lot of losses initially. He knew there were feral (wild) bee colonies. He observed that they stopped giving swarms when the Varroa came, but all feral colonies didn’t die. Some lived on, and after 3-4 years, they began to give swarms again.

Clive stopped to treat because Apistan stopped working in 2004.

Pete now focused on capturing swarms from feral bees. Then his bees survived better. Others split the colonies that survived Varroa best and had small Varroa populations. They provided new beekeepers with such new colonies. And the number of treatment free beekeepers grew.

Many of them don’t feed sugar but let them live entirely on honey. They keep the number of colonies in apiaries low. Pete has maximum 5 in each apiary. With his 60 colonies he harvests his 2 tons of honey to serve hos customers.

In 2010, they began to wonder how big the differences in losses were between those who treated and the treatment free beekeepers, so they asked around. The first line of numbers in the table is from the winter of 2010-2011. The last line is a summary of five winters.

Conclusions from the video:

  • The treatment free beekeepers group dominant their area with their bees
  • They cooperate with the feral bee population in the area
  • If you make splits, make it from the best colonies and let the bees make new queens.
  • Take swarms.
  • The colonies that are not fit enough die (or are requeened, if not by the beekeeper, by the colony itself).
  • No mating station with sister groups producing drones is used. All survivors are producing drones for mating with virgin queens.

Treatment free focus in Germany

 Besides detecting mites in brood and clean them from there, grooming mites from each other and bite them is also an important trait for bees fighting mites. Here a mite that has got some legs bitten. It will soon die after such treatment.

Treatment free focus in beekeeping is a growing movement in Germany, like in many other countries. This can be done in harmony with the legislation in almost all countries, if not all. Most legislations require treatment against the varroa mite, so people have come to think that they must treat every year to follow the law.

Now many have discovered that prophylactic treatment (before it’s actually needed) is almost never required, if anywhere. This means that to be able to be treatment free and keeping the law, you need to monitor the varroa level. If it’s below the threshold level, the mites create no problem for your or your neighbor’s bees, and no treatment is needed (yet?). The threshold level recommended by authorities is today in a climate similar to ours (Canada) 2% (two mites on 100 bees) in May and 3% in August. http://www.omafra.gov.on.ca/english/food/inspection/bees/varroa-sampling.htm An IPM PP-presentation from the university of Delaware: http://alturl.com/ed92e is focused also on developing resistant bees and management methods. You can find threshold values of 5% for the middle of the summer from universities in America, but that is probably to high for bees with weak resistance traits.

If the varroa population is above the threshold, the conclusion is that you have to take action to help the bees lowering the mite level. This can in many cases be done without treatment chemicals (drugs, essential oils or organic acids), but instead with other means. Monitoring can be done through checking natural downfall, looking for DWV bees (virus damaged bees) in front of the entrance or on brood combs, doing alcohol washes or sugar dusting. An effective treatment without chemicals – oils, acids or drugs – is removing capped brood, worker or/and drone. This of course effects the growth of the colony, but you can get a much worse effect by doing nothing at all. Also making artificial swarms is a way of preventing mite growths.

An important reason why you want to avoid the use treatment chemicals is that these interfere with the bees’ epigenetic adaption to rid themselves of mites.

This should be followed by replacing the queen in colonies with the worst problems with a queens bred from a more resistant colony. Also it’s important to let resistant colonies produce splits as well as a good amount of drones for the virgins to mate with.

Two beekeepers in Germany who work together according to these principles are Stefan Hutterer and Sibylle Kempf. They are active in a beekeeper group and on forums. Sibylle also makes many good comments on my blog. Here they give us reports from their season of 2017.

The story of Stefan

I´ve been keeping bees for 10 years now and decided in 2012 to regress one hive to small cell (SC) comb with the help of plastic comb (Mannlakes standard plastic comb https://www.mannlakeltd.com/shop-all-categories/hive-components/frames/plastic-frames/standard-plastic-frames ). That worked well, but the pure bred carniolans which I had could not follow the imprint of the cells on small cell wax foundation. Plus, which I think is important, they used no propolis. They were very susceptible to pests and diseases too.

The carniolan bees couldn’t follow the small cell pattern on the wax foundation and made a messy construction.

I wanted to be treatment free but I realized that in the end the only way to reach this would be to use a bee that had traits that had showed more success in this area.

2013 I ordered my first elgon queen from Josef Koller without expecting too much. I was curious how they would perform. This first Elgon colony survived winter very well and built nice 4.9 mm cellsize (SC).

A perfectly drawn SC wax foundation by an elgon colony

I think it’s important that bees do produce propolis to help them stay healthy. Here’s some applied on the top bars fo a mix of wooden and plastic frames in an elgon colony.

Mating apiary with Stefan. Apideas placed 4 and 4. Drone producing colonies in the traditional type of bee house.

I bred some daughters, thus making F1-colonies as they mated with carniolan drones and introduced them in Carniolan nucs. The more new bees that hatched in these nucs, the more they became lighter in color and less grey. I was impressed by the gentleness of the bees, and at the same time different in comparison to the carniolans as they were very defensive towards wasps and foreign bees and watched the entrances ferociously. Still, working with them was nice.

They started making brood later in spring than the carniolans, but I never had an elgon colony isolated from stores in winter or starving. They know how to househould with their food resources.

An elgon comb where the bees have uncapped cells with worker pupae as a way of fighting varroa.

2015 I got two pure bred elgons from Erik Osterlund in Sweden through a couple of friends, members of the ResistantBees Forum of Stephan Braun, La Palma. Now, 2017, I have only treatment free small cell bees except two large cell (LC) Carniolan hives.

I´m living in an area flooded with carniolans and I´m not isolated. This will not change. I also keep survivor colonies of unknown origin in my beeyards, but I know that I must propagate the best genetics to stay being treatment free.

So I breed every year from one or two pure bred elgon queens and shift all unsuccessful queens to better ones. I therefore this season bought two elgon queens directly from Sweden with the intent to use them the coming season.

Stefan Hutterer

Struggles for survival

My friend Stefan Hutterer and I started to work together and use the elgon bees because we realized they are less susceptible to diseases and are fighting more ferociously against the mites. They are more gentle than the imported Apis mellifera mellifera (AMM) we tried, and bring in more honey. These traits will hopefully convince other beekeepers to try treatment free beekeeping too.

A nice brood comb in an elgon colony.

A pure elgon queen mated with local drones giving a F1-colony.

To get elgon genetics in our beeyards, we purchase pure bred elgon queens, now directly from Sweden and breed virgins which are allowed to mate with drones of our local adapted bees, which are the carniolan crosses mostly but some buckfast combinations, and a growing number of elgons. So far the elgon crosses keep their good traits but we plan to introduce pure bred queens with not too long intervals. Stefan has kept elgons now for 3 years.

We want to flood our areas with our drones and give nucs to people working with us through our forum www.vivabiene.de

A workshop with our treatment free beekeepers group. We are producing small cell wax foundation with the help of mold parts bought from here: https://resistantbees.com/shop/index.php?id_category=7&controller=category&id_lang=5

We are trying to use foundationless naturally drawn comb to have locally produced clean wax. The elgons promptly built small cell natural comb in the brood area. The carniolans were not able to do that very well, probably because they are being bred on an unnatural cell size of 5.4 mm in the brood area for a long time.

Some members in our group will use well built small cell comb to regress the local hybridized colonies down in cellsize and try natural comb later.

I had big losses in winter 2016/2017. I went from 14 hives to 4. Four of the losses were the result of mite infestations. The others were due to bad matings and isolation of the cluster from food stores.

I went on and made splits from the survivors. Now in the autumn of 2017 I have wintered 12 hives. I got one colony from Stefan. Another one is a swarm with large cell (LC) bees I caught, which I now regress treatment free to small cells (SC) in my garden. My SC colonies are placed in apiaries with only my SC bees. Besides the LC swarm 4 are of the AMM mother line, 5 Elgons and 2 carnica crosses of survivor type.

Stefan has never had a crash. His losses are average, compared to both treatment free and treating beekeepers in his area. When he himself had both kind of bees in the past, small cell (SC) treatment free and LC treated with acids, he had about the same amount of winter losses in the two groups. Now he has changed to only SC treatment free. He is a very skilled beekeeper and has avoided some problems I have had as the inexperienced beekeeper I am, but I’m learning quickly.:)

I realized, that making strong splits with a lot of capped brood and a laying queen are “mite breeders“ in our environment, so I have tried other methods to make new colonies. This year I made small splits when doing them with laying queens and gave those only a few brood combs and some with food. Splits without an egglaying queen but with a virgin queens or a ripe queen cell were made strong. All splits got robber screens in front of the entrance to prevent robbing. When splits are placed in the same apiary as the one the bees were taken from all field bees flew back to the mother colony and left them defenseless against robbery. But the robber screens are good help against robbing.

Robber screens prevent robber bees from other colonies to interfere when introducing a new queen in a nuc or split.

May 16, I made a small split with my F1 elgon queen (pure elgon queen mated with local drones) I got in 2016. In the “middle” of the broodnest with 3 brood combs (no drone brood on those) I put a foundationless frame with just a starter strip of foundation. I was happy to see that in the middle of the comb they built naturally almost perfect small cells.

The small elgon split made small cells in the middle of a foundationless frame, which area the bees used for brood.

I have also had too much space during winter for the bees. I will change that. The bad matings were a result of the unfavorable weather situation in 2016, so I have to watch more carefully the time for breeding new queens and having them mated. There must be enough high temperature and enough amount of mature drones.

Beekeeping situations always change. To have success you must adapt to the needs of the bees and what nature tells you and develop a sensibility for this. This is hard work for me but when I see the beautiful elgon bees and the dark feral looking ones I have, the descendants of the AMM and still some carniolan crosses survivors I have, I enjoy every day learning from them.

After the colonies had been allowed to keep honey for winter stores Sibylle was able to secure a small crop for herself.

Sibylle Kempf in one of her apiaries.

The small harvest of honey I took after leaving the bees enough of their own honey for stores is a most wonderful compensation. Thank you, bees.

Sibylle Kempf, 4th season treatment free beekeeper

A good report on Elgon bees

I have just returned home from the annual meeting of our local bee association. Susanna Kivling spoke about the Beescanning project, beescanning.com  We were also discussing to establish an Elgon mating place for queens of the members. The best report I got after the meeting from Arne Andersson who got two queens from me last year of the line H131. He treats all his colonies every year for varroa. So he treated these two Elgon colonies with sublimating oxalic acid (“heat-steaming”) some time ago. He decided to treat them again with trickling oxalic sugar solution as he got so few mites from the treatment. These two treatments gave together two mites each from the two Elgon colonies. Another type of colony close to them dropped altogether 1000 mites. Cellsize? 5.1. I hope the Elgon colonies survives the two tough treatments so I can consider grafting from them next year.:)

Bashing temper of a daughter of a breeder

 The feeders I use. The gate has the angled plastic cover inserted when feeding to protect the bees from entering the whole area of the sugar solution

 

A few days ago I removed the last feeder after giving the colonies complementary sugar solution for winter feed before too low temperature arrives. Colonies surprised me being so calm I could speed up the work by bashing the feeder onto the hive in such a way that the bees sitting in the gate (by which they used to reach the sugar solution) fell into the open hive.

 The feeder was bashed on the hive in such a way the bees fell into the hive. This is not a normal way to rid the bees from the feeder. But these bees didn’t react, which made me happy.

 

A normal hive you shouldn’t treat like that for the risk arousing their temperament in a very bad way. They could start chasing yourself and all that are around you as well as neighbors.

I soon realized the bees didn’t care and I was both surprised and glad of course. This colony on the pictures is a split from one of my breeders this year. It reared their own queen, grew quickly in strength, gave some honey and ended up on three 12 frame square shallow boxes for winter packed with bees. The breeder colony is on its third season without any treatment of any kind and had a varroa level of 0% in May. The temper was good, but the temper of the split is even better, not a bee flying up at this bashing treatment. And no sign of any virus problems. In spring I will monitor the varroa level in this one and several others.

 A selfie with me and the colony after bashing it with the feeder. It was not easy and I managed to cover some of the picture with my finger, but you can se my mouth anyway.:)

 

I tried to take a selfie together with the colony just after the bashing, but it wasn’t that easy to get a good shot with one hand. But you see a little anyway.

Which bees are the best?

Bees can develop rapidly in spring, or slowly, or in between. Carnica bees (Carniolans) are usually known to develop rapidly in spring, while black bees (A. m. mellifera, AMM) usually develops slowly. If the bees are developing quickly, they eat more food as they make more brood. It is brood that requires a lot of food, both for feeding the young and for keeping brood temperature in the hive.
Carnica bees usually start brooding early and strong. Mostly they react quickly to availability of fresh pollen, especially later in summer when chilly weather keep them inside the hive and brooding thus is greatly reduced. The AMM bees are often adapted to a late honey flow and weak early flows. The late heather flow in the Nordic countries has been involved in forming this bee. The yellow Italian bees come from a warmer climate where it may be smaller weaker honey flows during a long time of the season. They often tend to breed most of the time the whole year long. Therefore, there have been management methods of beekeepers in Sweden to handle this. For example, to hinder the bees brooding in winter by wintering them in one box only with ten frames of Swedish standard frames (366 x 222 mm). Then they let the bees fill the box with as much sugar solution that they can, thus leaving very little space left for brood. Such a small box full of Italian bees should not be well insulated. But if the colony is not very strong, a good insulation is necessary in our climate.
A cold spring like this in 2017 is a hard test for the bees and the beekeeper. It may not have been such a cold spring since temperatures began to be measured in Sweden, probably since the mid 18 hundreds.

Which bees are then the best?

For survival of the bees, they obviously should develop slowly in spring, and have no or very very little brood in winter. Thus they are more able to economize with the food so that it lasts until they can collect more fresh nectar from flowers in nature. They must also be resistant to diseases that can create difficulties when spring is cold and long, especially nosema.
But a beekeeper who wants a little better honeycrop than just 10-15 kg in average, and is trying to make a living from his bees must have a little different goal for his bees. This beekeeper needs a bee that can be wintered stronger than just on one box of smaller frames. It shouldn’t breed in winter. But it should develop strong in spring, if there is food enough.

I prefer the Langstroth length of the frame, to get strong colonies. The frame height can be anyone of the available options. The goal is as strong a colony as possible going into winter, with plenty of food. Preferably at least a box on top full of feed.
Large amounts of food are not needed for wintering, but for making brood coming spring. Where I live, with my bees, brooding begins in smaller amounts in late winter and increases at the beginning of March. Later in March the queen lays a lot, especially after the main cleansing flight that normally takes place later in March.
A year like this, the amount of brood will vary in line with the ability for the bees to fly out of the hive and get water for the brood. Bee types differ in ability of flying at lower temperatures. The beekeeper must ensure that there are always at least 2 frames with capped food so that the bees can make brood without risking running out of food. (Italian bees, unfortunately, often breed strongly with almost no food left, which is very risky for the bees, with starvation as the result.)

 A few days ago temperature was 8-10 °C. Many colonies was more or less packed in the first super above the queen excluder. They got two more supers if they were more packed, one more supers if they were less packed. Today 18 May it is summer. The picture shows colonies in an apiary before they were supered a few days ago.

In order to be able to get a crop from early honey flows, the bees must be strong enough to fill at least one super above the queen excluder (one box more than expected room for the broodnest of the queen) and a second for the development of the strength of the bees, when the first early flow begins, which usually is from winter rape.
A long cold spring like this means you have to check the bees frequently to ensure they have food enough. The best is to give the bees capped food combs. I get them from my stock of capped food combs which I established in November removing some outer food combs from heavy hives in which the bee strength was smaller. Those combs were replaced with insulation dummy combs. Food combs can also come from colonies that have died during winter. Combs that have been heavily defecated on and can not be cleaned are not used. A few spots of defecation a strong colony can handle. Another option when food combs are not available is sugar fondant. The last option is sugar solution. It will can cause the colonies to make too much brood.
Especially a spring like this you see a difference in the bee colonies. There are those who have bred too much and used up too much food. And there are those that responded too much to the cold periods and stopped brooding almost altogether. And then there are the perfect ones that did not need extra food but still developed continously and developed enough good strength, albeit not the very strongest. Then there are those which developed very well but needed some extra food combs. The two last types of bees are those that should be favored when selecting for breeders. First priority is though of course Varroa resistance.

Varroa project 2014 –>

Click on the pictures to get better quality and readability

This test is accomplished and funded by LP:s biodling bee equipement supplier, Arne Andersson sideline beekeeper and Erik Österlund sideline beekeeper.

 

GOAL FOR THE PROJECT

The goal for this test is to see if it is possible:

  • to improve mite resistance in apiaries with 5-10 colonies,
  • to understand the impact of ”isolation” of 3-5 km (3-4 miles) to other beekeepers
  • to understand the role of small cell size in the broodnest
  • to see the role of differentiated treatment of varroa mites, that is treatment of only those colonies that exceed a defined varroa level

 

PLANNED MANAGEMENT

Avoid silent robbery

The colonies should be managed as similar as possible to a beekeeper that want to increase the number of colonies with an extensive management method. It should interfere as little as possible with the bees activities and avoid disturbing parameters, which could happen when you open the colonies often, like for example starting robbing in nectar droughts. It could be enough with silent robbery, a robbery activity that you don’t notice. That could be enough to destroy a test, in that the varroa populations are evened out

3% strategy

Therefore we decided to maximize the number of hives for the two main groups in this test to 10 hives (5+5). We also decided to make two or three alcohol washes with 1 dl of bees to monitor the varroa level during the season. When the Varroa level was higher than 3% we planned to treat with thymol. If it appeared wingless bees in or in front of a hive treatment was also to be performed.

Use of thymol

We decided to use dish cloth pads drenched with fluid thymol mixed with a minimal amount of rubbing alcohol (to lower the melting point of the thymol crystals) as treatment against mites when decision was made to treat. You can see how they are done and used in this article: http://elgon.es/resistancebreeding.html

Crop and feeding

If possible a harvest should be taken and sugar solution (or honey) fed at the end of season after harvest to ensure enough food for winter. The goal should be to leave a fair amount of honey for winter, if possible as much as you think your bees have got genetics to make it through the length of your winters.

Nucs and splits

Increase are made by making so called walk away splits that remain in the same apiary as the mother colony. These are allowed make there own queens, or supplied with mature queen cells made from a good colony in the apiary. This should also be the swarm prevention method.

Elgon and Carnica/Carniolan

We choose to use two different types of bees in the project. One type that has been selected for varroa resistance during many years, Elgon, that has been bred with this purpose since 1989. Another type that hasn’t been selected less, but in other traits are good, pure bred Carnica/Carniolan bees.

 

FITNESS

Increase of the number of colonies

The number of colonies wintered each autumn would be a way to measure the difference in success between the two parts (large and small cell size) of each main group, Elgons and Carniolans. To be counted in the increase would be the colonies that are brought out from the apiaries and the project, a kind of crop. What we measure will thus be the production of new colonies and survival of colonies to the next season, the difference of fitness. If colonies survive to the next season is not only dependent on the varroa and virus levels in the colonies, but also on other circumstances that influence the survival and how a colony thrive, for example other pathogens like nosema and quality of food like pollen throughout the season.

Start and number of years

Instead of starting the project with 5+5 colonies with each type of bees, we have choosen to start from a fewer number of hives and increase the numbers. And we plan to continue the project for at least 3-4 years. We have choosen areas for the test that are low in nectar and pollen sources. That’s also a reason why the number of hives are restricted to five in each part, which makes a total maximum for each type of bees 5+5 colonies, 5 small cell and 5 large cell.

 

CARNICA

Four Carniolan colonies, all of them being sister queens from a pure bred Carnica/Carniolan stock, were divided in two groups with 30 m between the groups. These groups were placed in a deeply forested area far enough from the Elgon bees. Here it was no farm in the neighborhood, like it is where the Elgon bees are placed. One group was established on Mann Lake’s standard plastic frame, 4.95 mm cell size. The other on Anel plastic frames with 5.5 mm cell size. Frame size medium (448 x 159 m). Hive type well insulated styren plastic boxes.

The Carnica bees 2014-2015

The Carniolan queens we received in 2013 were introduced into Elgon small cell (SC) colonies on 4.9 mm cell size shallow sized frames (448 x 137 mm). The Elgons are adapted to SC during many years and if nurse bees fed and born in SC should be of importance that criterium should then be met for this test. The Carniolans in their homeland could not draw and thus live well on ”SC”. Here they were adapted immediately through this process, but they could not draw wax foundation 4.9 well even though they lived well on 4.9. Probably because they were not genetically adapted to small cells. Mann Lakes 4.9 they could draw well. Probably because of the high plastic cell wall starters which they couldn’t remodel

In 2014 half of the Carniolans got only Mann Lake’s 4.9 (SC), half got Anels 5.5 (large cell, LC). During 2014 they were this way transferred to these two types of frames. Increasing cell size in the LC-group up to 5.5 was no problem either as they were adapted to 5.5 in their genetics before they came here.

All the Carnica/Carniolan colonies were treated with thymol in 2013, but not much, and in September 2014 after they were moved to their test destination. No DWV-bees were observed in 2014.

The LC part of the Carnica bees 2015

In 2015 in June the LC-group (both colonies) showed 6% varroa level and crippled winged bees, one colony quite badly. They both got one treatment with two homemade thymol pads with about 5 gr thymol each. The LC-bees gave no crop. The Varroa level had not increased again very much and was only about 1 %.

The SC part of the Carnica bees 2015

The SC colonies had 0.3% and 1% varroa level respectively. In beginning of June a so called walk away split was made from one of the SC-colonies. The new queen then of course mated to very closely related drones.

The strongest SC-colony gave a small crop.

In September the SC-colonies still had only around 1% Varroa level. None of the colonies got any treatment in the autumn due to the low varroa levels. The SC-colonies thus got no treatment at all in 2015.

The Carnica bees 2016

The LC part of the Carnica bees 2016

The weakest of thee LC colonies didn’t make it through winter. The second one looked fine in May.

The weather was then rainy and chilly for several weeks, and when the beekeeper returned in late May to monitor varroa levels, in the remaining LC-colony he only found some dead brood and a few dead bees on the bottom.

The SC part of the Carnica bees 2016

In spring 2016 the now three SC-colonies were doing fine, two of them though small in size.

In the three SC-colonies the varroa levels were 3-4% in late May and some crippled winged bees appeared. Thymol pads were applied in June. A walk away split was made from the strongest SC-colony. The weather was unfavorable and the other three robbed the split. It thus died.

In September the three SC-colonies looked fine and got no treatment. The bees superceded the three year old queen.

The Carnica bees 2016-2017

The three SC-colonies were moved to an apiary with better resources for nectar and pollen. Some more pure bred Carnica queens were received in 2016. They will be used to biuld up the test apiaries again. Daughters will be bred from these and mated in the apiary with drones from the survivor colonies of the SC bees.

The whole season of 2016 was bad in producing nectar and pollen. The colonies had a hard time growing in size. It was late in the season when complementary feeding in preparation for winter was done that they grew somewhat in strength. That was the reason these bees were moved to a better place for food.

All three colonies actually were weaker than wanted going into winter. Two colonies made it through winter. The third and weakest died. This colony had probably survived if it had been fed honey (or fondant) and pollen during the worst nectar- and pollen drought periods.

 

ELGON

Six Elgon colonies of two different mother lines divided in two groups with 3 colonies each were set up. These groups were placed in a deeply forested area with a small farm in the neighbourhood. The two groups were placed about 700 meters from each other. One group got Mann Lake’s standard plastic frame with small cells (SC), 4.95 mm cell size. The other got Anel plastic frames with Large cells (LC), 5.5 mm.

Two sister groups were used. One sister group consisted of 4 queens, 2 SC and 2 LC. The other sister group had two queens, 1 SC and 1 LC. Frame size is medium, (448 x 159 mm). Hive type with well insulated styren plastic boxes.

The Elgon bees 2014-2015

The Elgon groups were established with new queens in 2014 and transfered successfully to Mann Lake’s 4.9 and with big difficulties to Anels 5.5.

The queens in the LC colonies were very hesitant to lay in their large cells. One queen totally refused.The broodnest of that queen consisted of only two shallow SC-frames. The resulting colony was of course small going into winter in 2014, but it wintered together with the other two LC colonies in their test apiary.

Most of the colonies, SC and LC, were treated in 2014 with thymol but mostly only in May. So this Elgon test groups of 3+3 were not managed in regard to the Varroa mites, similar to the Carnica groups. In the Carnica colonies the varroa populations were evened out between them, by treating them with home made thymol pads in September 2014.

The Elgon test colonies were taken from different apiaries and the varroa level in the colonies were not known when they were brought to the test site in late August. Earlier in 2014 the colonies who had wingless bees were treated with thymol, in May that was.

The LC part of the Elgon bees 2014-2015

In spring 2015 the Elgon LC group continued to create problems as the bees protested against using LC combs for brood by supersedure their queens, probably in an adaption process.

In April before grafting time and any drones were flying one LC-colony was queenless. The new virgin queen had of course failed to mate and was gone. I combined the queenless colony with the mini colony (the one with the queen that had refused to lay but in the two shallows). This queen still refused to lay in any other comb than the two shallows, so I tried to fool them by giving them a couple of 5.3 mm cell sized plastic frames on each side of the SC combs. That worked. When the 5.3 were filled on each side of the 4.9 they started on the 5.5 next to the 5.3.

It seems it is the workers that prepare the cells for laying, not the queens that are deciding in which cells to lay. (This experience is also in line with what is written in old books from beginning of 1900, that when broodnest have 5.1 you could use 5.6 in honey supers without excluder as the queen didn’t lay in the 5.6.)

In late April 2015 the third (now the second as the other two were combined) LC-colony had a virgin. They were also trying to supersedure their queen. No drones available yet. So she failed. The colony got a queen cell in second half of May. That queen got laying. This colony had 5% varroa level in August and got thymol.

The first colony (former first and second combined) got a small piece of thymol (actually both parts that were combined got half a piece each) early in spring to help against eventual patoghen problems as they had different kind of problems (weak but queenright and queenless). This colony showed only 0.3% Varroa level in August and got no treatment.

The SC part of the Elgon bees 2014-2015

In 2015 the three Elgon SC colonies developed well. Splits were made from two of them. One failed, but finally got a laying queen very late in season. It ended up weak. It was lost during coming winter, the only loss of the Elgons. The smallest of the overwintered colonies had a queen that was laying badly. It was killed and replaced by a ripe queencell.

Four of the now five colonies showed crippled winged bees in July and had Varroa levels between 2-7%. Even the 2% colony showed a few DWV-bees telling me the virus levels in the colonies were quite high. One 3% had no DWV, the weak one mentioned above and it was the only one that didn’t get treatment.

Because the varroa populations in the colonies weren’t allowed to grow strongly (still there were enough viruses in 2015 after years of somewhat higher varroa and virus pressure in the Elgon apiaries of Erik Österlund), the virus amounts in the colonies decreased and also there was no silent robbery. And the varroa populations were evened out at a low level. Thus the situation now was much more comparable with the varroalevels in the Carnica colonies in autumn 2014

The Elgon bees had better nectar flows than the Carnica in 2015 and the Elgon colonies gave a good crop from the Heather in 2015. The average crop was about the same for both SC and LC colonies. In August none of the SC Elgons had above 3% varroa level. They had 0%-3%, and got no more thymol. No colony swarmed in any of the test apiaries.

The Elgon bees 2016

In spring 2016 one of the Elgons, the very weak one in the SC-group died (as mentioned above). Both LC colonies survived.

The LC part of the Elgon bees 2016

In the LC-group splits were made from both colonies. Weather was bad and one failed to produce a laying queen. It got a new ripe queen cell. The parts with the ”old” queens (from the year before) both superseded their queens, in line with experiences in 2015. This year they waited until beginning of summer when there were drones around. Maybe the bees had adapted somewhat to LC now.

The season of 2016 was very bad so no crop was secured from the LC-group. In spring the varroa levels were 0.3% in all four colonies (they became four after splitting in late May). In early September it was 0% – 8.6% – 0.9% – 4%. The two with highest levels were treated with thymol. The other two not. We can see that two colonies had very low levels of Varroa mites. This indicates a good genetic set up for Varroa resistance, also to be able to work with large cells apparently. The queens in the colonies with low Varroa level are sisters, mated in the test apiary. They are daughters to one of the colonies in the apiary, one in a split. The other as a result of supersedure in the mother colony producing this split.

The SC part of the Elgon bees 2016

The four remaining colonies in the SC-group gave a split each. Season was bad and two of the splits failed. A small crop was secured from the strongest of the colonies.

The two colonies with two year old queens supersedured these later in season. The 6 colonies all had 0.3% varroa levels in spring. In August the varroa levels were between 0-1.7%. As we had decided not to keep more than five colonies in each of the four parts of the test, colony no 6 of the SC-ones (the one with 1.7%) was removed from the test area. It wastreated with a small amount of formic acid to get an idea of the mite load and also test the shaker method. It fell 10 mites in a couple of days. The other 5 colonies remaining at the test site didn’t get any treatment.

The Elgon bees in the beginning of 2017

All four colonies in the LC group wintered well, in spite of that two of them were almost too weak, those that had had the highest Varroa levels and been treated.

One of the five SC colonies defecated a lot on the outside of the hive, though not much inside. They did not have a large amount of honey left for winter the previous autumn. And it was of good wintering quality. The winter before all colonies had had a large amount of difficult winter honey, from heather. The colony that died was the strongest and smallest Varroa level. It measured 0% on 400 bees. The was a good amount of food left in the hive after it had died. The colony had an old queen, and just a few meters there had been quite some traffic during late winter from a tree harvester. The other colonies looked fine, with almost no defecation.

Harvest and Varroa level 2015 and 2016 in SC and LC parts of the Carnica bees. The sites for Carnica and Elgon bees are not comparable as the Carnica site was didn’t have the same amount of food sources. Click on the picture to get it bigger and of better quality.

 

Harvest and Varroa level 2015 and 2016 in the SC and LC parts of the Elgon bees.

RESULTS

Losses

The losses in the Elgon groups have been quite normal, on the lower side. It has in percentage been higher in the Carnica groups, especially among the LC bees. The higher amount of losses can be explained by the low availability of pollen and nectar, especially during 2016. That’s why the test site for the Carnica bees has been moved. One conclusion is that during times with small amounts of available pollen and nectar a solution could be to feed the colonies fondant/honey and pollen to develop healthier and stronger colonies better adapted to survive winter.

The strategy of 3 %

The strategy to measure the Varroa level a couple of times during the season and use Varroa treatment (dish cloth pads, about 50 x 58 x 1.5 mm [2”x2”x1/16”], drenched in thymol) when/if the Varroa level is higher than 3 % (only treatmnent in these colonies, not in those below 3 %) has minimized reinfestation, maybe altogether. You thus get a true picture of the Varroa level in the colonies and thus a better selection of the most resistant colonies and the most susceptible ones. You could for example have expected that the different cell size groups had affected each other so that eventual difference in the varroa levels had evened out, especially among the Carnica bees as the two groups there were only 30 m apart.

Little need for Varroa treatment

Relatively little of Varroa treatment has been used, probably partly explained by the absence of reinfestation, no silent robbing. Most treatment has been used in the LC colonies of both the Elgon (2016 when reinfestation had been removed) and Carnica (2015, in 2016 there was no LC left) colonies.

The strategy of 3 % seems to have eliminated the need of Varroa treatment in the SC part of the Elgon bees due to elimination of reinfestation and enough good development of the varroa resistance with the Elgon bees.

This strategy has also lessened the need for varroa treatment to every second year with the SC part of the Carnica colonies and the need for treatment then has been small. Thymol in this context has been effective.

Cell size and fitness

In the LC part of the Carnica bees the need for treatment has been bigger probably because of a quicker development of the Varroa population. It seems fitness has been lower here probably partly due to the bad pollen and nectar availability. But fitness may also be lower because of other reasons. The Carnica LC colony that died in May did not die due to high varroa level. Lack of protein and/or other pathogens (like nosema) can be the cause. The Carnica test site is moved to a place with better food sources.

One can object to this conclusion of lower fitness for LC bees because the number of colonies are low.

On the other hand were all original queens in the Carnica group sisters and all colonies in SC and LC groups (Elgon and Carnica) are behaving consistent in this respect. And any difference in fitness between the two cell size groups among the Carnica bees should have been to the advantage of the LC colonies because the SC colonies had become inbred. Usually follows a lower immune system with inbreeding. Possible impact of this small distance would have been small(-er) difference in the varroa levels between the two groups due to evening out of the varroa populations. The 3% strategy, measuring varroa levels and treatment when it was above 3%, lowered the varroa populations enough to eliminate (totally or enough) the silent robbery.

In 2016 the only colonies that needed treatment were in the LC colonies of the Elgon bees. It should though be noted that with a stock of bees that have been selected for Varroa resistance it is possible to find colonies that are resistant also on large cells. Two colonies (with sisters queens) had very low levels of Varroa mites.

The honey crops, the bee strength of the colonies indicates, and the resulting number of colonies in the SC and LC parts of the stocks of bees indicates that it is no disadvantage to use small cells in the broodnest, rather the contrary.

 Summary of production of new bee colonies, increase in the number of wintered bee colonies. These figures could be seen as a measure of the vitality of the different cell size groups. There is a difference to the benefit of SC bees both in the E group (Elgon bees) and the C group (Carnica bees). Click on the pictures to get them bigger and of better quality.

 

Suggestion on a breeding program for increasing Varroa resistance in a bee population. The background for these suggestion is the results of this project, so far.